Belajar Dari Kasus Equifax: Privasi, SNI, dan Payung Hukum Terpadu

Belajar Dari Kasus Equifax: Privasi, SNI, dan Payung Hukum Terpadu

Ada 3 perusahaan besar (swasta) di Amerika Serikat (AS) yang mencatat semua transaksi keuangan (kartu kredit, pinjaman, SSN/nomor sosial) warga negara AS. Mereka adalah Equifax, Experian, dan TransUnion. Pada tanggal 7 September 2017, Equifax mengumumkan bahwa datanya telah terjebol. Sebanyak 143 juta rakyat AS, sekitar 44% populasi total AS, terlepas mereka menggunakan Equifax atau tidak, memiliki kemungkinan bahwa identitasnya yang tercuri dapat digunakan untuk melakukan transaksi keuangan.

Ironisnya, menurut Michael Riley, data tersebut justru tercuri dari situs Equifax yang menawarkan produk perlindungan pencurian informasi. Situs tersebut teretas menggunakan kelemahan-kelemahan yang ada untuk mengakses 143 juta data tersebut. Equifax menunggu 6 minggu untuk mengumumkan peretasan tersebut.

 The twins looked at each other jubilantly but with some surprise. Although 70-534 answer analysis they 70-534 answer analysis considered themselves Scarlett’s favored suitors, they had never before gained tokens ADM-201 exam dumps of this favor so easily. Usually she made them beg and plead, while she put them off, CISSP exam topics refusing to give a 70-534 answer analysis Yes or No answer, laughing if they sulked, growing cool if they became angry. And here she had practically promised them 70-534 answer analysis the ADM-201 exam dumps whole of tomorrow—seats by her at 70-534 answer analysis the barbecue, all the waltzes (and they’d see to it that the dances were CISSP exam topics all waltzes!) and the supper intermission. This was worth getting expelled from the university.Filled ADM-201 exam dumps with new enthusiasm by their success, they CISSP exam topics lingered on, talking about the barbecue 70-534 answer analysis and the ball and Ashley Wilkes 300-208 study material CISSP exam topics and Melanie Hamilton, CISSP exam topics interrupting each other, making jokes and laughing at them, hinting broadly for invitations 300-208 study material to supper. ADM-201 exam dumps Some time had passed before they realized that Scarlett was having very little to say. The atmosphere had somehow changed. Just how, the twins did not know, but the fine glow had gone out of the afternoon. Scarlett seemed to ADM-201 exam dumps be paying little attention to 70-534 answer analysis what they 300-208 study material 70-534 answer analysis ADM-201 exam dumps said, although she made the correct answers. Sensing something they 300-208 study material could not understand, baffled and annoyed by it, the twins struggled along for a while, and then rose reluctantly, ADM-201 exam dumps looking at their 300-208 study material watches.The sun was low CISSP exam topics across the new-plowed fields and the tall woods across the river ADM-201 exam dumps were looming ADM-201 exam dumps blackly in silhouette. Chimney swallows were darting swiftly across the yard, and chickens, ducks and turkeys were waddling 70-534 answer analysis and strutting and straggling in from the fields.Stuart bellowed: “Jeems!” And after an interval a 70-534 answer analysis tall black boy of their own age ran breathlessly around CISSP exam topics the house and out toward the ADM-201 exam dumps tethered horses. Jeems was their 300-208 study material body servant and, like CISSP exam topics the dogs, accompanied them everywhere. He had been CISSP exam topics their childhood playmate and had been given to the twins for their own ADM-201 exam dumps on their tenth birthday. At the sight of him, CISSP exam topics CISSP exam topics the Tarleton hounds rose up out of the red dust and stood waiting expectantly for their masters. The 300-208 study material boys bowed, shook hands and 300-208 study material told CISSP exam topics Scarlett they’d be over 300-208 study material at the 300-208 study material Wilkeses’ early in the morning, waiting for her. Then CISSP exam topics they were ADM-201 exam dumps off down the 70-534 answer analysis walk CISSP exam topics at a rush, mounted their horses and, followed by ADM-201 exam dumps ADM-201 exam dumps Jeems, went down the avenue of cedars at a gallop, waving their hats and yelling back to her.When they had rounded the curve of the dusty road that hid them from Tara, Brent drew his horse to a ADM-201 exam dumps stop under a clump of dogwood. Stuart halted, 70-534 answer analysis too, and the darky boy pulled up a few paces behind 300-208 study material them. The horses, feeling slack reins, 300-208 study material stretched down their necks to crop the tender spring grass, and the patient hounds lay down again in the 300-208 study material CISSP exam topics soft red dust and looked up longingly at the chimney swallows circling in the gathering dusk. 300-208 study material Brent’s wide ingenuous face was puzzled and mildly indignant.“Look,” he said. “Don’t it look to you like she 70-534 answer analysis would of asked us to stay for supper?”  Nor did 70-534 answer analysis James and Andrew, who took him into their store in Savannah, regret his lack of education. His clear hand, his 300-208 study material accurate CISSP exam topics figures and his shrewd ADM-201 exam dumps ability in bargaining won their respect, where a knowledge 70-534 answer analysis of literature and a fine appreciation of music, had young 300-208 study material Gerald possessed them, would have moved them to snorts of contempt. America, in the early years of the century, had been kind to the Irish. James and Andrew, who had begun by hauling goods in covered wagons 70-534 answer analysis from Savannah to Georgia’s inland towns, had prospered into a store of their own, and Gerald prospered with them.

Apa yang dilakukan Equifax dalam 6 minggu?

Mereka membuat sebuah laman www.equifaxsecurity2017.com yang dibuat di sebuah penyedia situs umum dengan DNS yang terdaftar secara anonim, bukan atas nama Equifax. Situs ini sepertinya dibuat secara tergesa-gesa sehingga masih ada beberapa data sensitif yang belum dilindungi. Situs ini bahkan sempat ditandai sebagai situs yang mencurigakan. Padahal, situs ini menyediakan layanan kepada rakyat AS apakah data mereka terjebol.

Situs ini mensyaratkan setiap orang yang menggunakan layanan untuk mengetahui datanya terjebol atau tidak harus secara otomatis melepaskan haknya untuk menuntut Equifax untuk hal yang terjadi sebagai syarat penggunaan (Terms of Use). Artinya, semua orang yang akan menggunakan layanan itu akan secara otomatis tidak bisa lagi menuntut kecerobohan Equifax. Namun, Jaksa Umum New York mengatakan bahwa syarat arbitrasi tersebut tidak benar dan meminta Equifax untuk mengubah/menghapus syarat penggunaan tersebut.

Beberapa hari setelah terjebolnya data Equifax, 3 orang eksekutif dalam perusahaan tersebut menjual sahamnya. Mereka berdalih bahwa ini hanya kegiatan yang biasa dan, menurut perusahaan, tidak mengetahui adanya kejadian terjebolnya data sebelum penjualan saham tersebut. Terlepas dari itu semua, para analis pasar modal justru menyarankan yang lain untuk membeli saham Equifax atau menahan diri untuk menjual saham tersebut.

Pelajaran

Banyak orang berasumsi bahwa tidak ada yang perlu ditakutkan bila kita tidak melakukan hal-hal yang salah. Nyatanya, penggunaan data secara ilegal pada era digital justru memerlukan privasi. Privasi bukan hanya mengatur data apa saja yang perlu dilindungi (boleh dibuka/tidak), namun juga mengatur kewajiban apa yang diperlukan untuk sebuah entitas (perusahaan/orang/apa pun) yang memegang info sensitif tersebut. Itu sebabnya, sebuah entitas bisnis diperlukan untuk membuat pernyataan privasi pada banyak negara.

Hal-hal yang dilakukan oleh Equifax ketika terjadi peretasan menandakan bahwa mereka tidak siap. Bahkan, mereka terkesan hendak cuci tangan. Padahal, ISO27001 dan standar keamanan sistem informasi (COBIT, ITIL, TOGAF) lainnya sudah ada.

Apakah standar-standar keamanan organisasi ini wajib diterapkan?

Kalau di Indonesia, sejauh ini saya baru menemukan POJK Nomor 38/POJK.03/2016 mengenai ketentuan bank umum untuk menerapkan standar-standar keamanan sistem informasi. Belum secara spesifik menyebutkan standar apa yang dipakai, misalnya SNI ISO/IEC 27001:2013. Jadi, standar apa pun yang digunakan asalkan disebutkan standar keamanan yang memenuhi kaidah tersebut, bolehlah. Lalu, bagaimana dengan industri telekomunikasi dan lembaga-lembaga lainnya yang non-bank umum?

Anda mungkin percaya kepada entitas yang memegang data Anda. Namun, ketidaktahuan bagaimana cara mereka menyimpannya dapat membuat data Anda tercuri. Alangkah baiknya pada era digitalisasi dan pertukaran data, payung hukum terpadu yang mendukung privasi dan prinsip keamanan dikembangkan. Hal ini dapat memaksa mereka untuk menerapkan standar keamanan yang cukup untuk melindungi data yang sudah dipercayakan.

Mungkin, suatu hari nanti apa bila itu terjadi, penipuan berbasis SMS sudah tidak laku lagi. Amin.

Maaf, ya, karena penjabaran berita Equifax kepanjangan, saya tidak menulis secara lengkap pendapat saya seperti biasanya. Nanti bila saya ada waktu℠ 😛

 

Iseng Menelusuri PesanKita

Iseng Menelusuri PesanKita

Malam ini saya tidak bisa tidur. Iseng melihat lini masa, saya membaca artikel Menkominfo menyarankan menggunakan aplikasi PesanKita sebagai pengganti Telegram. Katanya ada Pak Onno di dalamnya.

 The twins looked at each other jubilantly but with some surprise. Although 70-534 answer analysis they 70-534 answer analysis considered themselves Scarlett’s favored suitors, they had never before gained tokens ADM-201 exam dumps of this favor so easily. Usually she made them beg and plead, while she put them off, CISSP exam topics refusing to give a 70-534 answer analysis Yes or No answer, laughing if they sulked, growing cool if they became angry. And here she had practically promised them 70-534 answer analysis the ADM-201 exam dumps whole of tomorrow—seats by her at 70-534 answer analysis the barbecue, all the waltzes (and they’d see to it that the dances were CISSP exam topics all waltzes!) and the supper intermission. This was worth getting expelled from the university.Filled ADM-201 exam dumps with new enthusiasm by their success, they CISSP exam topics lingered on, talking about the barbecue 70-534 answer analysis and the ball and Ashley Wilkes 300-208 study material CISSP exam topics and Melanie Hamilton, CISSP exam topics interrupting each other, making jokes and laughing at them, hinting broadly for invitations 300-208 study material to supper. ADM-201 exam dumps Some time had passed before they realized that Scarlett was having very little to say. The atmosphere had somehow changed. Just how, the twins did not know, but the fine glow had gone out of the afternoon. Scarlett seemed to ADM-201 exam dumps be paying little attention to 70-534 answer analysis what they 300-208 study material 70-534 answer analysis ADM-201 exam dumps said, although she made the correct answers. Sensing something they 300-208 study material could not understand, baffled and annoyed by it, the twins struggled along for a while, and then rose reluctantly, ADM-201 exam dumps looking at their 300-208 study material watches.The sun was low CISSP exam topics across the new-plowed fields and the tall woods across the river ADM-201 exam dumps were looming ADM-201 exam dumps blackly in silhouette. Chimney swallows were darting swiftly across the yard, and chickens, ducks and turkeys were waddling 70-534 answer analysis and strutting and straggling in from the fields.Stuart bellowed: “Jeems!” And after an interval a 70-534 answer analysis tall black boy of their own age ran breathlessly around CISSP exam topics the house and out toward the ADM-201 exam dumps tethered horses. Jeems was their 300-208 study material body servant and, like CISSP exam topics the dogs, accompanied them everywhere. He had been CISSP exam topics their childhood playmate and had been given to the twins for their own ADM-201 exam dumps on their tenth birthday. At the sight of him, CISSP exam topics CISSP exam topics the Tarleton hounds rose up out of the red dust and stood waiting expectantly for their masters. The 300-208 study material boys bowed, shook hands and 300-208 study material told CISSP exam topics Scarlett they’d be over 300-208 study material at the 300-208 study material Wilkeses’ early in the morning, waiting for her. Then CISSP exam topics they were ADM-201 exam dumps off down the 70-534 answer analysis walk CISSP exam topics at a rush, mounted their horses and, followed by ADM-201 exam dumps ADM-201 exam dumps Jeems, went down the avenue of cedars at a gallop, waving their hats and yelling back to her.When they had rounded the curve of the dusty road that hid them from Tara, Brent drew his horse to a ADM-201 exam dumps stop under a clump of dogwood. Stuart halted, 70-534 answer analysis too, and the darky boy pulled up a few paces behind 300-208 study material them. The horses, feeling slack reins, 300-208 study material stretched down their necks to crop the tender spring grass, and the patient hounds lay down again in the 300-208 study material CISSP exam topics soft red dust and looked up longingly at the chimney swallows circling in the gathering dusk. 300-208 study material Brent’s wide ingenuous face was puzzled and mildly indignant.“Look,” he said. “Don’t it look to you like she 70-534 answer analysis would of asked us to stay for supper?”  Nor did 70-534 answer analysis James and Andrew, who took him into their store in Savannah, regret his lack of education. His clear hand, his 300-208 study material accurate CISSP exam topics figures and his shrewd ADM-201 exam dumps ability in bargaining won their respect, where a knowledge 70-534 answer analysis of literature and a fine appreciation of music, had young 300-208 study material Gerald possessed them, would have moved them to snorts of contempt. America, in the early years of the century, had been kind to the Irish. James and Andrew, who had begun by hauling goods in covered wagons 70-534 answer analysis from Savannah to Georgia’s inland towns, had prospered into a store of their own, and Gerald prospered with them.

Dari penelusuran iseng saya, saya menemukan komentar yang sudah terhapus tentang PesanKita adalah sebuah forking dari aplikasi GPLv3. Saya terlalu malas untuk membuat skrinsut hasil pencarian karena ketika saya mengulang pencarian, hasilnya tulisan itu tidak muncul.

Dari hasil pencarian, saya pun temukan TNISiber/PeSanKita-lib di Github. Berdasarkan keterangan, dia merupakan forking dari libsignal-service-java dari proyek Open Whisper System. Lihat di Github, saya melihat kode untuk server, aplikasi, dan pustaka.

Saya belum terlalu dalam mempelajari sistem ini karena saya sudah mengantuk dan ini cuma iseng. Saya tidak tahu apa yang diubah. Namun, apabila memang ini adalah sebuah aplikasi Open Whisper, bisa dikatakan bahwa benar klaim Pak Menteri bahwa PesanKita memiliki tingkat keamanan enkripsi seperti Telegram.

Saatnya kembali tidur.

Mengaktifkan Camera2 API

MIUI 9 dibuat dari rangka Android 7.1.1 seharusnya memiliki Camera2 API di dalamnya. Sayangnya, MIUI mengaktifkan pustaka HAL 1 bukannya HAL 3 sehingga fungsionalitas Camera2 API dimatikan oleh sistem.

Untuk mengatasi hal tersebut, /system/build.prop harus diubah dan ditambahkan:

persist.camera.HAL3.enabled=1

Dari pada secara manual dan berisiko merusak sistem, gunakan saja modul Magisk yang dibuat orang.

Memasang Modul Magisk

Karena sebagian dari kalian kemungkinan ada provider malas yang belum membuka akses Reddit, maka saya terpaksa memberikan akses langsung ke berkas.

  1. Unduh magisk-Camera2-API.zip.
  2. Masuk ke Magisk Manager. Klik tombol 3 garis → Modules  → (+) → pilih modul Magisk Camera2 API yang sudah terunduh.
  3. Reboot.

Selesai.

Aplikasi Kamera yang Memanfaatkan

Aplikasi standar MIUI masih berjalan seperti biasa, kecuali modus slow-mo. Namun, sayang rasanya bila Camera2 API tidak dimanfaatkan secara maksimal.

  • Kamera OP5. Saya suka kamera ini simpel. Secara mengejutkan, dia mendukung dual-camera yang ada di MIUI juga! Untuk foto-foto sederhana kamera ini cukup baik. Aplikasi ini ada di XDA Developer.
  • Kamera Google Pixel XL. Format HDR+ yang dihasilkan aplikasi ini luar biasa. Saya anjurkan menggunakan aplikasi ini untuk membuat foto-foto panorama.  Untuk bisa memfoto dengan baik, kamera diubah menjadi mode video terlebih dahulu, baru ubah kembali ke mode kamera. Aplikasi ini ada di XDA Developer.
  • Open Camera. Tampilannya rumit, namun semuanya sangat detail. Saya sejujurnya lebih suka aplikasi ini. Bisa dibuat untuk menyimpan dalam format RAW selain JPEG. Aplikasi ini ada di F-Droid.

Tentu penilaian saya ini masih jauh dari sempurna mengingat saya memasang dan menguji sekilas (first impression).

Bacaan Lebih Lanjut

Memasang TWRP 3.1.1-1 dan Magisk SU
Super Android, recharge!

Memasang TWRP 3.1.1-1 dan Magisk SU

Setelah saya membuka kunci Mi6 dan memasang MIUI 9, saya butuh TWRP dan Magisk. Sayangnya, saya selalu bootloop saat memasang TWRP dan Magisk. Sebelum itu, pada ROM MIUI 8 Global Stable, saya bisa dengan melakukan pemasangan berulang-ulang Magisk. Benar-benar magis pemasangan perkakas ini.

 The twins looked at each other jubilantly but with some surprise. Although 70-534 answer analysis they 70-534 answer analysis considered themselves Scarlett’s favored suitors, they had never before gained tokens ADM-201 exam dumps of this favor so easily. Usually she made them beg and plead, while she put them off, CISSP exam topics refusing to give a 70-534 answer analysis Yes or No answer, laughing if they sulked, growing cool if they became angry. And here she had practically promised them 70-534 answer analysis the ADM-201 exam dumps whole of tomorrow—seats by her at 70-534 answer analysis the barbecue, all the waltzes (and they’d see to it that the dances were CISSP exam topics all waltzes!) and the supper intermission. This was worth getting expelled from the university.Filled ADM-201 exam dumps with new enthusiasm by their success, they CISSP exam topics lingered on, talking about the barbecue 70-534 answer analysis and the ball and Ashley Wilkes 300-208 study material CISSP exam topics and Melanie Hamilton, CISSP exam topics interrupting each other, making jokes and laughing at them, hinting broadly for invitations 300-208 study material to supper. ADM-201 exam dumps Some time had passed before they realized that Scarlett was having very little to say. The atmosphere had somehow changed. Just how, the twins did not know, but the fine glow had gone out of the afternoon. Scarlett seemed to ADM-201 exam dumps be paying little attention to 70-534 answer analysis what they 300-208 study material 70-534 answer analysis ADM-201 exam dumps said, although she made the correct answers. Sensing something they 300-208 study material could not understand, baffled and annoyed by it, the twins struggled along for a while, and then rose reluctantly, ADM-201 exam dumps looking at their 300-208 study material watches.The sun was low CISSP exam topics across the new-plowed fields and the tall woods across the river ADM-201 exam dumps were looming ADM-201 exam dumps blackly in silhouette. Chimney swallows were darting swiftly across the yard, and chickens, ducks and turkeys were waddling 70-534 answer analysis and strutting and straggling in from the fields.Stuart bellowed: “Jeems!” And after an interval a 70-534 answer analysis tall black boy of their own age ran breathlessly around CISSP exam topics the house and out toward the ADM-201 exam dumps tethered horses. Jeems was their 300-208 study material body servant and, like CISSP exam topics the dogs, accompanied them everywhere. He had been CISSP exam topics their childhood playmate and had been given to the twins for their own ADM-201 exam dumps on their tenth birthday. At the sight of him, CISSP exam topics CISSP exam topics the Tarleton hounds rose up out of the red dust and stood waiting expectantly for their masters. The 300-208 study material boys bowed, shook hands and 300-208 study material told CISSP exam topics Scarlett they’d be over 300-208 study material at the 300-208 study material Wilkeses’ early in the morning, waiting for her. Then CISSP exam topics they were ADM-201 exam dumps off down the 70-534 answer analysis walk CISSP exam topics at a rush, mounted their horses and, followed by ADM-201 exam dumps ADM-201 exam dumps Jeems, went down the avenue of cedars at a gallop, waving their hats and yelling back to her.When they had rounded the curve of the dusty road that hid them from Tara, Brent drew his horse to a ADM-201 exam dumps stop under a clump of dogwood. Stuart halted, 70-534 answer analysis too, and the darky boy pulled up a few paces behind 300-208 study material them. The horses, feeling slack reins, 300-208 study material stretched down their necks to crop the tender spring grass, and the patient hounds lay down again in the 300-208 study material CISSP exam topics soft red dust and looked up longingly at the chimney swallows circling in the gathering dusk. 300-208 study material Brent’s wide ingenuous face was puzzled and mildly indignant.“Look,” he said. “Don’t it look to you like she 70-534 answer analysis would of asked us to stay for supper?”  Nor did 70-534 answer analysis James and Andrew, who took him into their store in Savannah, regret his lack of education. His clear hand, his 300-208 study material accurate CISSP exam topics figures and his shrewd ADM-201 exam dumps ability in bargaining won their respect, where a knowledge 70-534 answer analysis of literature and a fine appreciation of music, had young 300-208 study material Gerald possessed them, would have moved them to snorts of contempt. America, in the early years of the century, had been kind to the Irish. James and Andrew, who had begun by hauling goods in covered wagons 70-534 answer analysis from Savannah to Georgia’s inland towns, had prospered into a store of their own, and Gerald prospered with them.

Menurut TheStrix, pengelola TWRP resmi untuk Mi6, ada skrip pada MIUI versi 8+ yang bertugas untuk menulis kembali partisi recovery. Untuk itu, perlu dinonaktifkan. Berikut adalah perjalanan saya memasang TWRP dan Magisk SU.

Persiapan

Unduh:

  1. twrp-3.1.1-1-sagit.img
  2. Magisk-v13.5(1350).zip

sebagai persiapan di PC.

Oh, iya, jangan lupa aktifkan USB Debugging di Mode Pengembang.

Memasang TWRP

Masuk ke Fastboot:

adb reboot fastboot

Pasang TWRP:

sudo fastboot flash recovery twrp-3.1.1-1-sagit.img

Masuk ke TWRP:

sudo fastboot boot twrp-3.1.1-1-sagit.img

Masukkan sandi Anda untuk membuka partisi data. Normalnya, partisi data dikunci dengan pola.

Setelah di menu utama, kaitkan (mount) partisi /system:

adb shell mount /system

Non-aktifkan skrip rusuh yang membuat berhari-hari tak bisa tidur memikirkan apa yang salah dengan langkah yang telah dilakukan dahulu.

adb shell mv /system/bin/install-recovery.sh /system/bin/install-recovery.sh.bak

Sampai langkah ini TWRP selesai dipasang. Selanjutnya, mari memasang Magisk SU.

Memasang Magisk

Versi yang saya pasang saat penulisan adalah versi 13.5 Beta. Versi 13.3 yang terpasang pada MIUI 8 dahulu tidak dapat melewati Safety Net. Safety Net adalah mekanisme Google untuk menguji apakah sistem Android yang ada cukup aman untuk dapat mengaktifkan Google Payment dan fasilitas lainnya yang membutuhkan keamanan.

Taruh ZIP Magisk ke Mi6:

adb push Magisk-v13.5\(1350\).zip /sdcard

Dari TWRP, pilih Install  lalu pilih berkas Magisk-v13.5(1350).zip yang baru saja ditaruh di /sdcard.

Setelah melakukan pemasangan, jangan lupa hapus Cache/Dalvik Cache.

Mi6 telah di-root dan melewati Safety Net.

Magisk 13.5 Beta passing Safety Net.

Magisk 13.5 Beta passing Safety Net.

Tambahan

Berikut modul-modul Magisk yang saya pasang:

  1. Enable Camera2 API.  Google Camera memiliki kemampuan HDR+ yang memerlukan API Camera2. Mamun sayangnya, MIUI 9 secara baku menggunakan HAL1, bukan HAL3. Modul ini diperlukan untuk mengaktifkan HAL3.
  2. F-Droid Privileged Extension. Saya pengguna F-Droid.
  3. Terminal Emulator Debloater. Saya tidak suka banyak aplikasi bawaan MIUI 9.
  4. Universal SafetyNet Fix. Modul ini membetulkan Mi6 untuk dapat melewati SafetyNet.

Sekian.

Bacaan Lebih Lanjut

Pengalaman Memasang MIUI 9 dari Xiaomi Mi6 Global ROM (unlocked)
Super Android, recharge!

Pengalaman Memasang MIUI 9 dari Xiaomi Mi6 Global ROM (unlocked)

 The twins looked at each other jubilantly but with some surprise. Although 70-534 answer analysis they 70-534 answer analysis considered themselves Scarlett’s favored suitors, they had never before gained tokens ADM-201 exam dumps of this favor so easily. Usually she made them beg and plead, while she put them off, CISSP exam topics refusing to give a 70-534 answer analysis Yes or No answer, laughing if they sulked, growing cool if they became angry. And here she had practically promised them 70-534 answer analysis the ADM-201 exam dumps whole of tomorrow—seats by her at 70-534 answer analysis the barbecue, all the waltzes (and they’d see to it that the dances were CISSP exam topics all waltzes!) and the supper intermission. This was worth getting expelled from the university.Filled ADM-201 exam dumps with new enthusiasm by their success, they CISSP exam topics lingered on, talking about the barbecue 70-534 answer analysis and the ball and Ashley Wilkes 300-208 study material CISSP exam topics and Melanie Hamilton, CISSP exam topics interrupting each other, making jokes and laughing at them, hinting broadly for invitations 300-208 study material to supper. ADM-201 exam dumps Some time had passed before they realized that Scarlett was having very little to say. The atmosphere had somehow changed. Just how, the twins did not know, but the fine glow had gone out of the afternoon. Scarlett seemed to ADM-201 exam dumps be paying little attention to 70-534 answer analysis what they 300-208 study material 70-534 answer analysis ADM-201 exam dumps said, although she made the correct answers. Sensing something they 300-208 study material could not understand, baffled and annoyed by it, the twins struggled along for a while, and then rose reluctantly, ADM-201 exam dumps looking at their 300-208 study material watches.The sun was low CISSP exam topics across the new-plowed fields and the tall woods across the river ADM-201 exam dumps were looming ADM-201 exam dumps blackly in silhouette. Chimney swallows were darting swiftly across the yard, and chickens, ducks and turkeys were waddling 70-534 answer analysis and strutting and straggling in from the fields.Stuart bellowed: “Jeems!” And after an interval a 70-534 answer analysis tall black boy of their own age ran breathlessly around CISSP exam topics the house and out toward the ADM-201 exam dumps tethered horses. Jeems was their 300-208 study material body servant and, like CISSP exam topics the dogs, accompanied them everywhere. He had been CISSP exam topics their childhood playmate and had been given to the twins for their own ADM-201 exam dumps on their tenth birthday. At the sight of him, CISSP exam topics CISSP exam topics the Tarleton hounds rose up out of the red dust and stood waiting expectantly for their masters. The 300-208 study material boys bowed, shook hands and 300-208 study material told CISSP exam topics Scarlett they’d be over 300-208 study material at the 300-208 study material Wilkeses’ early in the morning, waiting for her. Then CISSP exam topics they were ADM-201 exam dumps off down the 70-534 answer analysis walk CISSP exam topics at a rush, mounted their horses and, followed by ADM-201 exam dumps ADM-201 exam dumps Jeems, went down the avenue of cedars at a gallop, waving their hats and yelling back to her.When they had rounded the curve of the dusty road that hid them from Tara, Brent drew his horse to a ADM-201 exam dumps stop under a clump of dogwood. Stuart halted, 70-534 answer analysis too, and the darky boy pulled up a few paces behind 300-208 study material them. The horses, feeling slack reins, 300-208 study material stretched down their necks to crop the tender spring grass, and the patient hounds lay down again in the 300-208 study material CISSP exam topics soft red dust and looked up longingly at the chimney swallows circling in the gathering dusk. 300-208 study material Brent’s wide ingenuous face was puzzled and mildly indignant.“Look,” he said. “Don’t it look to you like she 70-534 answer analysis would of asked us to stay for supper?”  Nor did 70-534 answer analysis James and Andrew, who took him into their store in Savannah, regret his lack of education. His clear hand, his 300-208 study material accurate CISSP exam topics figures and his shrewd ADM-201 exam dumps ability in bargaining won their respect, where a knowledge 70-534 answer analysis of literature and a fine appreciation of music, had young 300-208 study material Gerald possessed them, would have moved them to snorts of contempt. America, in the early years of the century, had been kind to the Irish. James and Andrew, who had begun by hauling goods in covered wagons 70-534 answer analysis from Savannah to Georgia’s inland towns, had prospered into a store of their own, and Gerald prospered with them.

ISI ARTIKEL INI DAPAT MEMBUAT XIAOMI MI6 ANDA RUSAK!

SAYA TIDAK MENGANJURKAN UNTUK MELAKUKAN INI 

DAN SEBAGAI PENULIS TIDAK BERTANGGUNG JAWAB

ATAS APA YANG ANDA LAKUKAN.

Ini sekedar pengalaman saya saja, tolong jangan jadikan tutorial resmi. Untuk bisa melakukan ini, hal-hal yang telah saya persiapkan:

  • Memiliki GNU/Linux KDE Neon (Ubuntu 16.04) yang sudah terpasang fastboot dan adb dengan benar. Artinya, keduanya sudah bisa membaca Android.
  • Xiaomi Mi6 sudah di-unlock secara resmi.
  • USB Debug sudah diaktifkan di mode pengembang.
  • Sudah memasang TWRP 3.1.1-0. Namun, ini tidak penting, karena pemasangan tidak dari recovery, tapi dari fastboot.
  • ROM versi Fastboot dari forum MIUI untuk Mi6. Besar berkas sekitar 2GB (2020MB), jadi silakan ditunggu saja unduhannya. Sengaja tidak saya kasih hotlink, tidak sopan.

Hal yang mau saya capai adalah memasang MIUI 9 tanpa menghapus aplikasi lama.

MASUK KE FASTBOOT

MIUI menyediakan dua versi, Recovery dan Fastboot. Untuk Mi6 yang dari MIUI 8 Global Stable (V8.2.2.0.NCAMIEC), tidak bisa melakukan dari recovery.

  1. Matikan perangkat Mi6.
  2. Setelah mati, tekan tombol Volume Turun + Power. Tahan sampai muncul tampilan Fastboot.
  3. Terakhir, hubungkan perangkat Mi6 ke PC/Laptop. Saya sarankan dengan laptop, sih. Supaya catu daya stabil dan gangguan listrik padam minim. Takut gagal di tengah jalan dan perangkat jadi bata.

Pasang MIUI 9

Paket MIUI yang kita unduh itu sebenarnya berkas TAR yang membungkus semua berkas IMG dan skrip pasang. Bongkar dan masuk ke direktori:

tar xvfz sagit_global_images_7.8.10_20170810.0000.00_7.1_global_8039c40e70.tgz
cd sagit_global_images_7.8.10_20170810.0000.00_7.1_global

Jalankan skrip flash_all_except_storage.sh. Saya pilih skrip ini karena saya tidak mau konfigurasi dan aplikasi yang telah saya pasang hilang.

$ sudo bash flash_all_except_storage.sh 
[sudo] password for jp: 
product: sagit
erasing 'boot'...
OKAY [  0.007s]
finished. total time: 0.007s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'crclist' (0 KB)...
OKAY [  0.001s]
writing 'crclist'...
OKAY [  0.002s]
finished. total time: 0.003s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'sparsecrclist' (0 KB)...
OKAY [  0.000s]
writing 'sparsecrclist'...
OKAY [  0.000s]
finished. total time: 0.001s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'xbl' (3970 KB)...
OKAY [  0.128s]
writing 'xbl'...
OKAY [  0.104s]
finished. total time: 0.232s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'xblbak' (3970 KB)...
OKAY [  0.126s]
writing 'xblbak'...
OKAY [  0.135s]
finished. total time: 0.261s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'abl' (108 KB)...
OKAY [  0.004s]
writing 'abl'...
OKAY [  0.003s]
finished. total time: 0.007s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'ablbak' (108 KB)...
OKAY [  0.004s]
writing 'ablbak'...
OKAY [  0.005s]
finished. total time: 0.008s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'tz' (1892 KB)...
OKAY [  0.061s]
writing 'tz'...
OKAY [  0.050s]
finished. total time: 0.111s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'tzbak' (1892 KB)...
OKAY [  0.060s]
writing 'tzbak'...
OKAY [  0.069s]
finished. total time: 0.129s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'hyp' (248 KB)...
OKAY [  0.009s]
writing 'hyp'...
OKAY [  0.007s]
finished. total time: 0.016s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'hypbak' (248 KB)...
OKAY [  0.009s]
writing 'hypbak'...
OKAY [  0.007s]
finished. total time: 0.016s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'rpm' (228 KB)...
OKAY [  0.008s]
writing 'rpm'...
OKAY [  0.007s]
finished. total time: 0.015s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'rpmbak' (228 KB)...
OKAY [  0.008s]
writing 'rpmbak'...
OKAY [  0.007s]
finished. total time: 0.015s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'pmic' (49 KB)...
OKAY [  0.002s]
writing 'pmic'...
OKAY [  0.002s]
finished. total time: 0.004s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'pmicbak' (49 KB)...
OKAY [  0.002s]
writing 'pmicbak'...
OKAY [  0.002s]
finished. total time: 0.005s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'devcfg' (56 KB)...
OKAY [  0.002s]
writing 'devcfg'...
OKAY [  0.002s]
finished. total time: 0.004s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'storsec' (48 KB)...
OKAY [  0.002s]
writing 'storsec'...
OKAY [  0.002s]
finished. total time: 0.004s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'bluetooth' (380 KB)...
OKAY [  0.013s]
writing 'bluetooth'...
OKAY [  0.011s]
finished. total time: 0.024s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'cmnlib' (212 KB)...
OKAY [  0.007s]
writing 'cmnlib'...
OKAY [  0.008s]
finished. total time: 0.015s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'cmnlibbak' (212 KB)...
OKAY [  0.008s]
writing 'cmnlibbak'...
OKAY [  0.008s]
finished. total time: 0.016s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'cmnlib64' (275 KB)...
OKAY [  0.009s]
writing 'cmnlib64'...
OKAY [  0.010s]
finished. total time: 0.019s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'cmnlib64bak' (275 KB)...
OKAY [  0.010s]
writing 'cmnlib64bak'...
OKAY [  0.008s]
finished. total time: 0.018s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'modem' (110524 KB)...
OKAY [  3.545s]
writing 'modem'...
OKAY [  4.501s]
finished. total time: 8.046s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'dsp' (16384 KB)...
OKAY [  0.518s]
writing 'dsp'...
OKAY [  0.450s]
finished. total time: 0.968s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'keymaster' (369 KB)...
OKAY [  0.013s]
writing 'keymaster'...
OKAY [  0.011s]
finished. total time: 0.023s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'keymasterbak' (369 KB)...
OKAY [  0.013s]
writing 'keymasterbak'...
OKAY [  0.013s]
finished. total time: 0.026s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'logo' (14132 KB)...
OKAY [  0.446s]
writing 'logo'...
OKAY [  0.534s]
finished. total time: 0.980s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'splash' (167 KB)...
OKAY [  0.006s]
writing 'splash'...
OKAY [  0.024s]
finished. total time: 0.030s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'misc' (8 KB)...
OKAY [  0.001s]
writing 'misc'...
OKAY [  0.001s]
finished. total time: 0.002s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
erasing 'system'...
OKAY [  0.541s]
sending sparse 'system' 1/7 (515528 KB)...
OKAY [ 23.088s]
writing 'system' 1/7...
OKAY [ 21.534s]
sending sparse 'system' 2/7 (509068 KB)...
OKAY [ 20.232s]
writing 'system' 2/7...
OKAY [ 22.077s]
sending sparse 'system' 3/7 (524282 KB)...
OKAY [ 21.680s]
writing 'system' 3/7...
OKAY [ 21.243s]
sending sparse 'system' 4/7 (518394 KB)...
OKAY [ 21.380s]
writing 'system' 4/7...
OKAY [ 19.992s]
sending sparse 'system' 5/7 (524202 KB)...
OKAY [ 21.734s]
writing 'system' 5/7...
OKAY [ 23.267s]
sending sparse 'system' 6/7 (472247 KB)...
OKAY [ 18.714s]
writing 'system' 6/7...
OKAY [ 20.218s]
sending sparse 'system' 7/7 (81808 KB)...
OKAY [  3.096s]
writing 'system' 7/7...
OKAY [  4.964s]
finished. total time: 263.760s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
erasing 'cache'...
OKAY [  0.008s]
sending 'cache' (6200 KB)...
OKAY [  0.196s]
writing 'cache'...
OKAY [  0.351s]
finished. total time: 0.555s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'recovery' (22169 KB)...
OKAY [  0.713s]
writing 'recovery'...
OKAY [  0.579s]
finished. total time: 1.292s
erasing 'sec'...
OKAY [  0.000s]
finished. total time: 0.000s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'cust' (341855 KB)...
OKAY [ 10.859s]
writing 'cust'...
OKAY [ 21.771s]
finished. total time: 32.630s
target reported max download size of 536870912 bytes
sending 'boot' (20085 KB)...
OKAY [  0.631s]
writing 'boot'...
OKAY [  0.682s]
finished. total time: 1.313s
rebooting...

finished. total time: 0.050s

Proses ini memakan waktu sekitar 50 detik. Setelah selesai dengan sempurna, skrip akan memulai ulang perangkat Mi6.

Selesai.

MIUI 9 Global Beta

MIUI 9 Global Beta

Aplikasi saya tidak terhapus, namun saya tidak lagi ter-root. Perangkat jauh lebih enteng dan cair. Ya, berhubung setelah memasang saya langsung menulis ini, saya belum menjelajahi lebih lanjut. Namun, sejauh ini, sih, saya senang.

Bacaan Lebih Lanjut

Pasang Zabbix 3.2 di Debian Jessie

Pasang Zabbix 3.2 di Debian Jessie

 The twins looked at each other jubilantly but with some surprise. Although 70-534 answer analysis they 70-534 answer analysis considered themselves Scarlett’s favored suitors, they had never before gained tokens ADM-201 exam dumps of this favor so easily. Usually she made them beg and plead, while she put them off, CISSP exam topics refusing to give a 70-534 answer analysis Yes or No answer, laughing if they sulked, growing cool if they became angry. And here she had practically promised them 70-534 answer analysis the ADM-201 exam dumps whole of tomorrow—seats by her at 70-534 answer analysis the barbecue, all the waltzes (and they’d see to it that the dances were CISSP exam topics all waltzes!) and the supper intermission. This was worth getting expelled from the university.Filled ADM-201 exam dumps with new enthusiasm by their success, they CISSP exam topics lingered on, talking about the barbecue 70-534 answer analysis and the ball and Ashley Wilkes 300-208 study material CISSP exam topics and Melanie Hamilton, CISSP exam topics interrupting each other, making jokes and laughing at them, hinting broadly for invitations 300-208 study material to supper. ADM-201 exam dumps Some time had passed before they realized that Scarlett was having very little to say. The atmosphere had somehow changed. Just how, the twins did not know, but the fine glow had gone out of the afternoon. Scarlett seemed to ADM-201 exam dumps be paying little attention to 70-534 answer analysis what they 300-208 study material 70-534 answer analysis ADM-201 exam dumps said, although she made the correct answers. Sensing something they 300-208 study material could not understand, baffled and annoyed by it, the twins struggled along for a while, and then rose reluctantly, ADM-201 exam dumps looking at their 300-208 study material watches.The sun was low CISSP exam topics across the new-plowed fields and the tall woods across the river ADM-201 exam dumps were looming ADM-201 exam dumps blackly in silhouette. Chimney swallows were darting swiftly across the yard, and chickens, ducks and turkeys were waddling 70-534 answer analysis and strutting and straggling in from the fields.Stuart bellowed: “Jeems!” And after an interval a 70-534 answer analysis tall black boy of their own age ran breathlessly around CISSP exam topics the house and out toward the ADM-201 exam dumps tethered horses. Jeems was their 300-208 study material body servant and, like CISSP exam topics the dogs, accompanied them everywhere. He had been CISSP exam topics their childhood playmate and had been given to the twins for their own ADM-201 exam dumps on their tenth birthday. At the sight of him, CISSP exam topics CISSP exam topics the Tarleton hounds rose up out of the red dust and stood waiting expectantly for their masters. The 300-208 study material boys bowed, shook hands and 300-208 study material told CISSP exam topics Scarlett they’d be over 300-208 study material at the 300-208 study material Wilkeses’ early in the morning, waiting for her. Then CISSP exam topics they were ADM-201 exam dumps off down the 70-534 answer analysis walk CISSP exam topics at a rush, mounted their horses and, followed by ADM-201 exam dumps ADM-201 exam dumps Jeems, went down the avenue of cedars at a gallop, waving their hats and yelling back to her.When they had rounded the curve of the dusty road that hid them from Tara, Brent drew his horse to a ADM-201 exam dumps stop under a clump of dogwood. Stuart halted, 70-534 answer analysis too, and the darky boy pulled up a few paces behind 300-208 study material them. The horses, feeling slack reins, 300-208 study material stretched down their necks to crop the tender spring grass, and the patient hounds lay down again in the 300-208 study material CISSP exam topics soft red dust and looked up longingly at the chimney swallows circling in the gathering dusk. 300-208 study material Brent’s wide ingenuous face was puzzled and mildly indignant.“Look,” he said. “Don’t it look to you like she 70-534 answer analysis would of asked us to stay for supper?”  Nor did 70-534 answer analysis James and Andrew, who took him into their store in Savannah, regret his lack of education. His clear hand, his 300-208 study material accurate CISSP exam topics figures and his shrewd ADM-201 exam dumps ability in bargaining won their respect, where a knowledge 70-534 answer analysis of literature and a fine appreciation of music, had young 300-208 study material Gerald possessed them, would have moved them to snorts of contempt. America, in the early years of the century, had been kind to the Irish. James and Andrew, who had begun by hauling goods in covered wagons 70-534 answer analysis from Savannah to Georgia’s inland towns, had prospered into a store of their own, and Gerald prospered with them.

Pasang repositori resmi Zabbix 3.2 untuk Debian Jessie

wget http://repo.zabbix.com/zabbix/3.2/debian/pool/main/z/zabbix-release/zabbix-release_3.2-1+jessie_all.deb
sudo dpkg -i zabbix-release_3.2-1+jessie_all.deb
sudo apt update

Pasang peladen Zabbix dan antarmuka webnya:

sudo apt-get install zabbix-server-pgsql zabbix-frontend-php php5-pgsql

Peladen Zabbix

Buat basisdata PostgreSQL untuk digunakan Zabbix dengan sedikit sentuhan nama yang cukup kreatif (menurut saya, kayaknya).

sudo -u postgres createuser -DAP terjabiks
sudo -u postgres createdb -O terjabiks jabikdb

Buat skema Zabbix di basisdata yang sudah dibuat:

zcat /usr/share/doc/zabbix-server-pgsql/create.sql.gz | psql -U terjabiks -h localhost jabikdb

Setelah itu, jangan lupa sesuaikan konfigurasi peladen Zabbix (/etc/zabbix/zabbix_server.conf) dengan login PostgreSQL yang sudah dibuat. Cari baris-baris yang berisi hal berikut dan ganti. Sandinya tentu saja ubah, ya, sesuai dengan sandi yang sudah dibuat sebelumnya. Saya menggunakan pwgen untuk membuat sandi.

DBHost=localhost
DBName=jabikdb
DBUser=terjabiks
DBPassword=P4S$WoRDYgDiBuatPak3PwG3nAja

Setelah itu, jalankan ulang peladen Zabbix agar menggunakan konfigurasi yang sudah diubah:

sudo systemctl restart zabbix-server

Peladen Antarmuka Web Zabbix

Ubah konfigurasi /etc/zabbix/apache.conf untuk menambahkan Timezone. Kebetulan saya di Asia/Jakarta (GMT+7).

sudo sed -i  -e"s/# php_value date.timezone.*$/php_value date.timezone Asia\/Jakarta/" /etc/zabbix/apache.conf

Jalankan ulang Apache2.

sudo systemctl restart apache2

Buka peladen dan arahkan ke http://<alamat.server.zabbix.anda>/zabbix

Konfigurasi Web Zabbix

Klik Next step terus sampai konfigurasi basisdata dan isi sesuai yang diset tadi.

Zabbix Web configuring database backend.

Lalu klik Next step. Masukkan nama Zabbix Anda kalau mau.

zabbix detail name

Zabbix detail name

Pencet terus Next step sampai Finish.

Selesai.

Admin awal loginnya: Admin dan sandinya zabbix bila ingin masuk.

 

 

Bacaan Lebih Lanjut

#TeamElonMusk
Super Android, recharge!

#TeamElonMusk

Mark Zuckerberg dan Elon Musk berselisih pendapat mengenai keberadaan kecerdasan buatan (Artificial Intelligence/A.I.). Perselisihan dimulai dari Elon Musk yang menginginkan agar pemerintahan seluruh dunia segera bersatu membuat aturan yang mengatur kecerdasan buatan. Kemudian, melalui Facebook Live, Zuckerberg membantah Elon Musk dan mengatakan bahwa kecerdasan buatan sangat membantu dan berharap bahwa 10 tahun mendatang kecerdasan buatan dapat menolong memperbaiki kehidupan manusia. Elon Musk merupakan bagian dari penanda tangan surat terbuka yang dibuat tahun 2015 untuk meminta pengembangan kecerdasan buatan yang bertanggung jawab.

Kata-kata Mereka

Agar elok, mari kita bandingkan perkataan mereka mengenai kecerdasan buatan agar lebih mudah membahas apa sebenarnya yang menjadi masalah.

Perkataan Elon Musk

Berikut apa yang dikatakan oleh Elon Musk:

“Normally the way regulations are set up is a whole bunch of bad things happen, there’s a public outcry and then after many years the regulatory agencies set up to regulate that industry. That in the past has been bad but not something that represented a fundamental risk to the existence of civilisation. AI is a fundamental risk to the existence of civilisation in a way that car accidents, aeroplane crashes, faulty drugs or bad food were not. They were harmful to a set of individuals but they were not harmful to society as a whole.”

Menurut Musk, normalnya regulasi dibuat setelah terjadi pertentangan di publik yang memaksa sesuatu untuk diregulasi. Hal ini karena risiko yang dapat timbul tidak mengancam keberadaan peradaban manusia. [Sedangkan] Kecerdasan Buatan adalah ancaman yang mengancam peradaban yang mana berbeda [tingkat ancamannya] dengan kecelakaan mobil, kecelakaan pesawat, obat-obatan terlarang,  atau makanan yang buruk. Semuanya itu berbahaya kepada beberapa individu, tetapi mereka tidak berbahaya kepada masyarakat secara keseluruhan [seperti kecerdasan buatan].

Elon Musk mencemaskan kecerdasan buatan yang dapat mengancam keberadaan peradaban manusia.

Perkataan Zuckerberg

Berikut yang dikatakan oleh Zuckerberg:

I have pretty strong opinions on this. I am optimistic. I think you can build things and the world gets better. But with AI especially, I am really optimistic. And I think people who are naysayers and try to drum up these doomsday scenarios—I just, I don’t understand it. It’s really negative and in some ways I actually think it is pretty irresponsible In the next five to 10 years, AI is going to deliver so many improvements in the quality of our lives… Whenever I hear people saying AI is going to hurt people in the future, I think, “yeah, you know, technology can generally always be used for good and bad, and you need to be careful about how you build it, and you need to be careful about what you build and how it is going to be used.” But people who are arguing for slowing down the process of building AI, I just find that really questionable. I have a hard time wrapping my head around that.

Zuckerberg berpendapat bahwa kita dapat membangun banyak hal untuk membuat dunia yang lebih baik. Tentang kecerdasan buatan, dia optimis dan tidak mengerti mengapa ada orang-orang yang menentang dengan alasan penyebab kiamat. Padahal, dalam waktu 10 tahun, kecerdasan buatan dapat meningkatkan kualitas hidup kita. Memang, semua teknologi bisa digunakan untuk kebaikan atau kejahatan dan kita harus berhati-hati dalam menggunakan teknologi. Untuk orang-orang yang berargumen untuk memperlama proses pembuatan kecerdasan buatan, Zuckerberg mempertanyakan pendapat tersebut.

Zuckerberg berpendapat bahwa kecerdasan buatan hanyalah sebuah teknologi sama seperti teknologi lainnya. Ia dapat digunakan untuk kebaikan atau keburukan. Sehingga, memperlambat pengembangannya adalah hal yang tidak masuk akal.

Kecerdasan Buatan yang Dimaksud

Apa, sih, yang mereka perdebatkan?

Dari segi tingkat kecerdasan, ada tiga jenis kecerdasan buatan:

  • Kecerdasan Buatan Lemah, Weak A.I./Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI). Sistem kecerdasan buatan yang dibuat untuk menyelesaikan satu area permasalahan saja. Misalnya, kecerdasan buatan yang dibuat untuk bermain catur.
  • Kecerdasan Buatan Umum, Artificial General Intelligence (AGI). Sistem kecerdasan buatan yang dibuat untuk mereplikasi pikiran manusia.
  • Kecerdasan Buatan Super, Artificial Superintelligence (ASI). Sistem kecerdasan buatan yang memiliki kemampuan berpikir jauh lebih pintar dari manusia.

Hal yang ditakutkan oleh Elon Musk adalah kecerdasan buatan umum (AGI) yang saat ini sedang dikembangkan. Ada dua sifat yang menjadi ancaman membuat kecerdasan buatan ini menakutkan:

  1. AGI memiliki kemampuan untuk berkomunikasi dengan bahasa yang tidak dimengerti oleh manusia. Hal ini membuat penyeliaan menjadi proses yang rumit bahkan mustahil.
  2. AGI memiliki kemampuan untuk memperbaiki algoritma untuk mencapai tujuan. Perbaikan tanpa penyeliaan manusia dapat menghasilkan keputusan yang tidak dapat dicegah.

Intinya, ketika pengembangan kecerdasan buatan tanpa penyelia tercapai masalah dapat muncul. Arah algoritma yang tak terduga dapat membuat algoritma kecerdasan buatan menjadi jahat (rogue). Itu sebabnya, ada usaha seperti Google yang berusaha mengembangkan kecerdasan buatan yang tidak curang.

Ancaman Nyata Saat Ini

Hal yang paling berpengaruh dalam kecerdasan buatan adalah otomatisasi. Otomatisasi meningkatkan efisiensi yang dapat menurunkan biaya produksi. Lengan-lengan robotika dan mesin yang diatur secara canggih menghasilkan paket produk secara cepat.

Sayangnya, keberadaan otomatisasi menghilangkan kebutuhan industri akan pekerja (manusia). Otomatisasi menghilangkan banyak pekerjaan yang tersedia bagi manusia. Mereka tergantikan oleh mesin yang lebih efisien dan anti mogok kerja.

Zuckerberg tidaklah 100% melawan Musk. Seperti Elon Musk, dia menyetujui juga pentingnya pendapatan dasar universal (universal basic income, UBI). Pendapatan dasar universal adalah bantuan tunai langsung yang diberikan oleh pemerintah kepada masyarakat akibat adanya otomatisasi industri yang menggantikan pekerja. Sebagai contoh, Pemerintah Alaska menerapkan kebijakan Permanent Fund Dividend (PFD) yang memberikan uang rata-rata senilai US$1.000,00 per kepala.

Pemerintahan SBY pernah mencoba melakukan program UBI melalui Bantuan Langsung Tunai (BLT). Penyebabnya bukanlah otomatisasi industri, tetapi inflasi yang berlebihan. Namun, karena data penduduk yang digunakan adalah data lama, maka BLT berlangsung gagal dan mendapat kecaman. Timbul konflik di beberapa daerah akibat adanya BLT. Selain itu, persepsi masyarakat merasa bahwa BLT membebankan APBN. Waktu yang terbatas pun menjadikan BLT menjadi tidak tepat guna karena belum sempat efektif implementasinya.

Padahal, menurut Evans dan Popova dalam penelitian mereka di Kenya, justru tingkat penggunaan uang dari BLT sangat baik. Ketika wanita menjadi pemegang keuangan, alkohol dan rokok justru tidak terbeli. Mereka fokus untuk pemenuhan rumah tangga. Mungkin, itulah sebabnya Jokowi/Ahok menggunakan variasi BLT dalam KJP untuk dapat menaikkan standar hidup mereka sekaligus memberikan kepercayaan kepada masyarakat bahwa uang yang diberikan tidak untuk disia-siakan.

UBI bisa jadi solusi jangka panjang untuk hilangnya lapangan pekerjaan. Ada tantangan yang akan dihadapi ketika ini diterapkan di Indonesia. Pendataan penduduk yang akurat dan waktu untuk menerapkan yang cukup lama. Selain itu, pemerintah memiliki tugas untuk meyakinkan masyarakat yang masih memiliki lapangan pekerjaan bahwa tidak apa untuk memberikan gratis uang kepada mereka yang pekerjaannya terhilang.

Saya belum yakin kalau Indonesia akan bisa menganggap mereka yang menganggur sebagai penyebab hilangnya lapangan pekerjaan. Jangan-jangan, saat otomatisasi tiba, kita akan mengira bahwa mereka hanyalah orang-orang yang malas. Bahkan, kita tidak lagi mengganggap mereka adalah orang-orang yang kesempatannya telah hilang, tetapi lebih rendah dari itu.

Itulah makanya, saya setuju bahwa pencapaian teknologi perlu diimbangi dengan kajian yang mendalam mengenai dampak sosial yang akan muncul. Tidak untuk mencegah kemajuan, namun untuk sebuah kemanusiaan yang masih bebas dan merdeka.

Pemasangan Oneplus 5: Bagian 2
Super Android, recharge!

Pemasangan Oneplus 5: Bagian 2

Pada bagian ini saya hendak menceritakan beberapa perkakas yang saya pasang untuk membantu saya.

Komponen Google

Ingat bahwa saya menghapus banyak aplikasi standar OOS? (Debloated)

Nampaknya, ada beberapa komponen Google yang harus ada supaya aplikasi dan penggunaan Oneplus maksimal.

  • Google. Nampaknya peluncur Oneplus dan komponen lainnya mengambil data dari API Google. Jadi, aplikasi ini terpasang secara baku.
  • GBoard. Saya suka dengan susunan tombol dari Google Keyboard.
  • GMail. Untuk mengakses surel yang diperlukan untuk spamming daftar ke banyak situs.
  • Google Calendar. Pengingat ulang tahun nomor wahid. Bisa rusak hubungan tanpa ini.
  • Google Drive. Setidaknya bisa melihat dokumen dengan ini.
  • Google Play Games. Mobile Legends menggunakan ini untuk menyimpan data. Apa? Anda pikir saya terlalu serius?
  • Google Text-to-speech (TTS). Penyedia NLP de facto di Android. Saya malas memasang yang alternatif. Teknologi TTS dibutuhkan untuk aplikasi yang menyebutkan sesuatu seperti nama jalan. Aplikasi Here MAPS yang saya gunakan butuh ini.
  • Snapseed. Untuk menjadi (mengemulasi diri seperti) anak gaul perlu banyak efek kamera yang komprehensif. Didukung dengan kamera yang prima, Snapseed menjadi perkakas utama untuk tampil prima di media sosial.

Komponen Magisk

Magisk adalah sebuah proyek baru yang mengimplementasi supersu, fungsi rooting di Android. Berikut adalah modul tambahan yang saya masukkan untuk membuat Oneplus 5 saya lebih berwarna:

  • Busybox for Android NDK. Seperti Google, aplikasi wajib.
  • F-Droid Privileged Extension. Aplikasi market yang memasang aplikasi FOSS.
  • Sony Music app Magisk Module. Saya pecinta Sony Ericsson dari zaman Z600 sampai terakhir Xperia Mini Pro. Berhubung tidak ada aplikasi musik pada ROM yang saya pasang, saya memilih aplikasi ini. Keunggulan dia adalah bisa memilih dari direktori atau pustaka. Plus, bisa mencari gambar album. Terakhir, menaruh lagu/album ke playlist.

Demikian.

 

 

Pemasangan Oneplus 5: Bagian 1
Super Android, recharge!

Pemasangan Oneplus 5: Bagian 1

Oneplus 5

Oneplus 5 package

Sebegitu rindunya saya memiliki Oneplus 5 sehingga saya pun terpaksa menelan harga diri dan menerima paket Oneplus 5 dengan bonus Beats. Ingat! Saya tidak menggunakan Beats, jadi jangan hakimi saya!

Paket yang saya beli memberikan saya satu karet pelindung, satu pelindung layar, dan satu Beats. Sayangnya, dari ketiganya hanya karet pelindung yang saya pakai sementara. Sisanya akan teronggok di gudang.

Langkah yang pertama ketika membuka Oneplus 5, seperti versi sebelumnya, saya mengganti ROM pabrikan. Hal ini penting karena ada beberapa fitur yang perlu:

  • AdAway untuk DNS anti iklan.
  • F-Droid untuk penyedia aplikasi GPL v3.
  • Membuang aplikasi yang tak perlu.
  • Deodexed, penjadwal kernel, dan beberapa fitur lainnya.
  • Dan beberapa aplikasi yang tak baik untuk disebut di sini.

Saya sebenarnya lebih suka ROM non-OOS (non-Oxygen OS). Namun, apa daya karena masih baru, ada galat seperti dukungan Bluetooth dan beberapa galat lainnya membuat saya masih berpaling ke ROM berbasis OOS.

Setelah riset beberapa saat, saya memutuskan untuk memilih berikut:

Aktifkan Debug

Dari Settings → About phone, ketuk beberapa kali pada baris Build number untuk mengaktifkan Developer options. Keluar dari About phone akan ada menu baru Developer options.

Aktifkan OEM unlocking untuk memasang ROM pemulihan terkustomisasi, TWRP.

Aktifkan USB Debugging agar dapat dikenali di komputer.

Setelah ini, sambungkan ke komputer. Telepon akan menanyakan apakah komputer dapat dipercaya. Silakan dicentang dan setujui. Bila benar, maka Oneplus akan dikenali:

$ adb devices
List of devices attached
b0cb66  device


Selanjutnya memasang BOOT.

Memasang Boot

Nyalakan ulang Oneplus ke mode Fastboot:

adb reboot bootloader

Buka segel Oneplus:

sudo fastboot oem unlock

Saya asumsikan Anda sudah mengunduh twrp-3.1.1-1-cheeseburger.img di komputer Anda.

sudo fastboot flash recovery twrp-3.1.1-1-cheeseburger.img

Nyalakan ulang dan masuk ke Recovery:

adb reboot recovery

Salah satu kekurangan ketika dibuka kunci, perangkat Oneplus pasti mengaktifkan fungsi semacam menu GRUB sebelum masuk. Ya, tinggal pencet tombol Power, sih, untuk Start kalau tidak sabar menunggu beberapa detik.

Memasang ROM

Ketika di dalam mode Recovery, Anda dapat menggunakan menu-menu TWRP untuk memasang sistem. Tetapi, apa serunya? Saya menggunakan terminal dan TWRP.

Format Partisi Lama

Pada menu TWRP, pilih Wipe → Advanced Wipe

Pilih partisi-partisi berikut untuk dihapus:

  • Dalvik/ART Cache
  • Cache
  • System
  • Data

Sisakan Internal Storage dan USB-OTG. Lalu, Swipe to Wipe

Wipe before install

Tekan tombol kembali tiga kali untuk kembali ke menu utama.

Menaruh Berkas-berkas

Taruh berkas-berkas yang diperlukan ke Oneplus.

ROM

adb push xXx_NoLimits_1.6_OP5_Oxygen_4.5.5.zip /sdcard/

Kernel

Pemasang ROM xXx akan mengenali kernel Adin bila ditaruh pada direktori yang tepat:

adb shell mkdir /sdcard/xXx
adb push Adin-Kernel-R6-OP5-OOS-N.zip /sdcard/xXx

Pasang ROM

Untuk memasang, di menu utama ketuk menu Install.

Pilih ZIP ROM xXx yang telah diunggah tadi.

Swipe to confirm Flash

Perhatikan bahwa kita tidak perlu memilih kernel Adin karena akan dideteksi nanti.

xXx Aroma Installer

Pilih Make your individual Selections karena saya suka kebebasan!

Pastikan pilihan berikut tercentang:

Reboot Options:

  • Reboot after Flashing

Root Access:

  • Magisk v13 by topjohnwu

xXx Tweaks:

  • xXx Tweaks Framework
  • Windows Animation Scales

Kernel:

  • Kernel Selection Menu

SDcard Fix:

  • Fix SDcard permissions

Update Radio and Firmware

  • Flash Radio and Firmware

Reset Magisk Repository Image

  • Reset Magisk Image (pastikan ini dipilih supaya bersih)

Ketuk Next untuk ke halaman selanjutnya.

Laman ini laman preferensi. Jadi, silakan saja pilih sesuka hati. Namun, berikut pilihan saya.

Launcher Selection:

  • OnePlus Launcher (saya pilih ini biar terasa rasa Oneplus-nya)

Sound Mods saya tidak pilih satu pun karena semua musik yang saya taruh saya rip dari CD yang saya beli sendiri.  Silakan pilih kedua pilihan yang ada kalau Anda mau.

Debloating:

  • Extreme Debloating

Emojis:

  • Oneplus Stock Emojis 

Ketuk Next untuk ke halaman selanjutnya.

Windows Animation Speeds:

  • Fast Animations (tergantung selera)

Ketuk Next untuk ke halaman selanjutnya.

Kernel Selections:

  • STOCK KERNEL
  • Adin Kernel – by adinkwok

Ketuk Next untuk ke halaman selanjutnya.

Ketuk Next untuk untuk memulai pemasangan sistem.

Bila benar, maka setelah selesai pemasangan, sistem akan dinyalakan ulang dan masuk ke sistem yang baru. Selanjutnya, pemasangan Oneplus seperti biasa.

Repositori Suri untuk PHP 7.1+

Repositori Suri untuk PHP 7.1+

Plessis mengumumkan bahwa dia sudah tidak mau lagi mengelola pemaketan PHP terbaru di Dotdeb. Dia kemudian menyarankan untuk menggunakan repositori dari Sury, seorang pengelola resmi pemaketan PHP dari Debian.

Karena Sury menggunakan HTTPS, jangan lupa pasang dulu transportasi HTTPS untuk APT:

sudo apt install apt-transport-https

Cara menambahkan:

wget -O- https://packages.sury.org/php/apt.gpg | sudo apt-key add -
echo "deb https://packages.sury.org/php/ jessie main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list.d/php-sury.list
sudo apt update

Selesai. Secara baku, paket PHP yang dipilih adalah 7.1. Namun, Sury menyediakan juga untuk paket PHP 7.0.

Create A Database and Its Owner on PostgreSQL
PostgreSQL database

Create A Database and Its Owner on PostgreSQL

In MySQL, these are the chants:

sudo mysql --defaults-file=/etc/mysql/debian.cnf
create database mydb;
grant all privileges on mydb.* to myuser identified by 'p@s$W0rd';

On PostgreSQL, the chants are:

sudo -u postgres createuser -DAP myuser
sudo -u postgres createdb -O myuser mydb

Very simple actually and Debian by default listen at localhost. Users can connect to its database via port 5432.

Of course, these chants are useful for developing apps. In Production, you should supply a user that can only Read/Write/Update a database. In fact, several frameworks like Laravel could setup another user just to Read the database.

Memasang Laravel dengan SQLite3

Memasang Laravel dengan SQLite3

Saya lupa untuk memasang contoh kalau sudah benar di artikel sebelum ini. Ya, sudah, kalau begitu kita coba saja Laravel dengan SQLite3 sebagai basisdatanya.

Buat Situs Baru

Jalankan perintah berikut:

laravel new situs-sqlite && cd situs-sqlite

Tergantung kecepatan koneksi Anda, Anda bisa mandi dulu. Sudah mandi, ‘kan?

Modifikasi Konfigurasi untuk SQLite3

Ubah berkas .env membuat semua variabel dengan awalan DB_ dan tambahkan variabel untuk SQLite.

sed -i "/DB/d"  .env
echo "DB_CONNECTION=sqlite" >> .env
echo "DB_DATABASE='storage/testdb.sqlite'" >> .env

Buat sebuah basis data baru.

touch storage/testdb.sqlite

Jalankan migrasi.

php artisan migrate

Jalankan peladen Laravel. Untuk kesenangan semata, saya menjalankan pada port yang berbeda.

php artisan serve --host 10.0.2.15 --port 8001

Ya, IP yang aneh itu adalah IP lokal VirtualBox. Saya menggunakan itu agar port-nya dapat diteruskan ke inang. Sehingga, saya bisa mengakses dari peramban saya sendiri.

Kalau benar tampilannya akan seperti berikut:

Laravel first-app.

Memasang Laravel pada Debian Jessie

Memasang Laravel pada Debian Jessie

Laravel bisa dengan PHP 5.6, tetapi lebih baik gunakan versi 7 saja. Versi 7 ada di DotDeb.

Persiapan

Pemasangan repo DotDeb dengan membuat /etc/apt/sources.list.d/dotdeb.list

echo "deb http://packages.dotdeb.org jessie all" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list.d/dotdeb.list
echo "deb-src http://packages.dotdeb.org jessie all" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list.d/dotdeb.list

Daftarkan kunci  repositori DotDeb dan kemudian perbaharui daftar paket.

wget -O- https://www.dotdeb.org/dotdeb.gpg  | sudo apt-key add
sudo apt update

Pasang Perkakas

Pasang hal-hal remeh.

sudo apt install unzip git

Pasang PHP7.

sudo apt install php-cli php-pgsql php-mysql php-sqlite3 php-mbstring php-xml php-zip

Pasang Composer.

sudo wget https://getcomposer.org/download/1.4.2/composer.phar -O /usr/local/bin/composer && sudo chmod +x /usr/local/bin/composer

Tambahkan PATH untuk Composer.

echo "PATH=\$PATH\:\$HOME/.composer/vendor/bin"  >> ~/.bashrc

Tak perlu keluar:

source ~/.bashrc

Pasang Laravel.

composer global require "laravel/installer"

Selesai.

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Memasang Golang Terbaru

Memasang Golang Terbaru

Debian Jessie memiliki Go versi lawas di repositorinya. Hal ini membuat beberapa aplikasi Go seperti Hydra SSO tidak bisa berjalan. Untuk itu, harus dipasang Go versi manual.

Pertama-tama, pergi ke laman unduh di situs resmi Go. Saat penulisan versi Go yang terbaru adalah 1.8.3. Lalu, salin tautan unduhan untuk dipakai.

Unduh dan taruh Go ke direktori tertentu. Kalau saya, lebih suka di /opt

wget -O- https://storage.googleapis.com/golang/go1.8.3.linux-amd64.tar.gz | sudo tar xvfz - -C /opt

Go memerlukan direktori Go untuk pengguna dan direktori Go sendiri untuk bisa dieksekusi. Maka, buatlah berkas /etc/profiles.d/golang.sh yang berisi:

export GOROOT=/opt/go
export GOPATH=$HOME/.go
export PATH=$PATH:$GOROOT/bin:$GOPATH/bin

Selesai.

Oh, iya, supaya tidak usah keluar, langsung saja eksekusi:

source /etc/profile.d/golang.sh

 

Galera dengan Galera Arbitrator (GARB)

Galera dengan Galera Arbitrator (GARB)

Galera with Galera Arbitrator for conflict resolution.

Pada implementasi terdahulu, digunakan tiga basisdata agar tercapai kuorum. Kuorum ditujukan agar tidak tercapai konflik penulisan (split brain). Namun, sebenarnya untuk dua basisdata saja sudah cukup. Pasang saja Galera Arbritator (GARB) pada kepala kluster dan matikan saja salah satu node supaya terjadi kuorum.

 The twins looked at each other jubilantly but with some surprise. Although 70-534 answer analysis they 70-534 answer analysis considered themselves Scarlett’s favored suitors, they had never before gained tokens ADM-201 exam dumps of this favor so easily. Usually she made them beg and plead, while she put them off, CISSP exam topics refusing to give a 70-534 answer analysis Yes or No answer, laughing if they sulked, growing cool if they became angry. And here she had practically promised them 70-534 answer analysis the ADM-201 exam dumps whole of tomorrow—seats by her at 70-534 answer analysis the barbecue, all the waltzes (and they’d see to it that the dances were CISSP exam topics all waltzes!) and the supper intermission. This was worth getting expelled from the university.Filled ADM-201 exam dumps with new enthusiasm by their success, they CISSP exam topics lingered on, talking about the barbecue 70-534 answer analysis and the ball and Ashley Wilkes 300-208 study material CISSP exam topics and Melanie Hamilton, CISSP exam topics interrupting each other, making jokes and laughing at them, hinting broadly for invitations 300-208 study material to supper. ADM-201 exam dumps Some time had passed before they realized that Scarlett was having very little to say. The atmosphere had somehow changed. Just how, the twins did not know, but the fine glow had gone out of the afternoon. Scarlett seemed to ADM-201 exam dumps be paying little attention to 70-534 answer analysis what they 300-208 study material 70-534 answer analysis ADM-201 exam dumps said, although she made the correct answers. Sensing something they 300-208 study material could not understand, baffled and annoyed by it, the twins struggled along for a while, and then rose reluctantly, ADM-201 exam dumps looking at their 300-208 study material watches.The sun was low CISSP exam topics across the new-plowed fields and the tall woods across the river ADM-201 exam dumps were looming ADM-201 exam dumps blackly in silhouette. Chimney swallows were darting swiftly across the yard, and chickens, ducks and turkeys were waddling 70-534 answer analysis and strutting and straggling in from the fields.Stuart bellowed: “Jeems!” And after an interval a 70-534 answer analysis tall black boy of their own age ran breathlessly around CISSP exam topics the house and out toward the ADM-201 exam dumps tethered horses. Jeems was their 300-208 study material body servant and, like CISSP exam topics the dogs, accompanied them everywhere. He had been CISSP exam topics their childhood playmate and had been given to the twins for their own ADM-201 exam dumps on their tenth birthday. At the sight of him, CISSP exam topics CISSP exam topics the Tarleton hounds rose up out of the red dust and stood waiting expectantly for their masters. The 300-208 study material boys bowed, shook hands and 300-208 study material told CISSP exam topics Scarlett they’d be over 300-208 study material at the 300-208 study material Wilkeses’ early in the morning, waiting for her. Then CISSP exam topics they were ADM-201 exam dumps off down the 70-534 answer analysis walk CISSP exam topics at a rush, mounted their horses and, followed by ADM-201 exam dumps ADM-201 exam dumps Jeems, went down the avenue of cedars at a gallop, waving their hats and yelling back to her.When they had rounded the curve of the dusty road that hid them from Tara, Brent drew his horse to a ADM-201 exam dumps stop under a clump of dogwood. Stuart halted, 70-534 answer analysis too, and the darky boy pulled up a few paces behind 300-208 study material them. The horses, feeling slack reins, 300-208 study material stretched down their necks to crop the tender spring grass, and the patient hounds lay down again in the 300-208 study material CISSP exam topics soft red dust and looked up longingly at the chimney swallows circling in the gathering dusk. 300-208 study material Brent’s wide ingenuous face was puzzled and mildly indignant.“Look,” he said. “Don’t it look to you like she 70-534 answer analysis would of asked us to stay for supper?”  Nor did 70-534 answer analysis James and Andrew, who took him into their store in Savannah, regret his lack of education. His clear hand, his 300-208 study material accurate CISSP exam topics figures and his shrewd ADM-201 exam dumps ability in bargaining won their respect, where a knowledge 70-534 answer analysis of literature and a fine appreciation of music, had young 300-208 study material Gerald possessed them, would have moved them to snorts of contempt. America, in the early years of the century, had been kind to the Irish. James and Andrew, who had begun by hauling goods in covered wagons 70-534 answer analysis from Savannah to Georgia’s inland towns, had prospered into a store of their own, and Gerald prospered with them.

GARB adalah sebuah layanan khusus untuk memilih (voting) di Galera. Dia tidak ada ada data di dalamnya.

Pasang GARB

Supaya sama, saya asumsikan kita memasang repositori resmi dari MariaDB.

curl -sS https://downloads.mariadb.com/MariaDB/mariadb_repo_setup | sudo bash
sudo apt-get update

Mari memasang GARB:

sudo apt-get install galera-arbitrator-3

Selesai.

Konfigurasi GARB

Ubah berkas /etc/default/garb sebelum memulai GARB.

# Copyright (C) 2012 Codership Oy
# This config file is to be sourced by garb service script.

# A comma-separated list of node addresses (address[:port]) in the cluster
GALERA_NODES="192.168.101.10:4567,192.168.101.11:4567"

# Galera cluster name, should be the same as on the rest of the nodes.
GALERA_GROUP="apakek_cluster"

# Optional Galera internal options string (e.g. SSL settings)
# see http://galeracluster.com/documentation-webpages/galeraparameters.html
# GALERA_OPTIONS=""

# Log file for garbd. Optional, by default logs to syslog
# LOG_FILE=""

Jangan lupa untuk menyertakan port! Ada galat dikonfigurasi GARB bila kita tidak secara spesifik menyebutkan port Galera.

Jalankan GARB

sudo /etc/init.d/garb start

Bila sudah benar, seharusnya saat menguji jumlah node dalam kluster tetap tiga.

$ sudo mysql --defaults-file=/etc/mysql/debian.cnf -e 'SELECT VARIABLE_VALUE as "cluster size" FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.GLOBAL_STATUS WHERE VARIABLE_NAME="wsrep_cluster_size"'
+--------------+
| cluster size |
+--------------+
| 3            |
+--------------+

Selesai.

Mount Windows Share on KDE Neon
Wily Broke The Window

Mount Windows Share on KDE Neon

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Because of WCry 2.0, people turned off SMBv1 protocol. So, to mount that Windows Share folder, we need to adjust by defining the protocol version. Thus, mounting:

sudo mount -t cifs //[WINDOWS_IP]/[WINDOWS_FOLDER] /mnt -o username=guest,uid=1000,vers=2.1

e.g.

sudo mount -t cifs //192.168.1.2/jav /mnt -o username=guest,uid=1000,vers=2.1

Change uid with your own UID. We could use protocol 3. But, in this example, I used SMB version 2.1.

Wily Broke The Window

Read more about ..

Kalau KMail mengambek dengan pesan:

org.kde.pim.kmail: "The protocol version of the Akonadi server is incompatible. Make sure you have a compatible version installed. (Protocol version mismatch. Server version is newer (56) than ours (57). If you updated your system recently please restart the Akonadi server.)"
*** KMail got signal 11 (Exiting)
Segmentation fault

Itu berarti Akonadi perlu dinyalakan ulang.

akonadictl restart

 

Memasang React Native
Super Android, recharge!

Memasang React Native

WordPress semenjak versi 4.7 telah menambahkan fitur WP REST API v2. Dengan adanya fasilitas tersebut, WordPress bisa dibuat sebagai peladen API yang berisi artikel. Namun, yang paling penting dari semuanya itu, WordPress dapat menjadi peladen untuk aplikasi-aplikasi web modern macam React/Redux dan lain sebagainya.

Cara Pasang

Pastikan bahwa Android SDK sudah terpasang. Paling gampang, kita bisa langsung memasang Android Studio yang juga akan memasang Android SDK. Silakan ikuti tautan. Saya takkan menulis apa pun karena tutorial dari Google sudah ada yang menggunakan Bahasa Indonesia.

Jalankan ketiga baris ini dan tambahkan ketiga baris tersebut ke dalam ~/.bashrc agar selalu otomatis terjalankan setiap kali Anda menjalankan sesi terminal baru.

export ANDROID_HOME=~/Android/Sdk
export PATH=${PATH}:${ANDROID_HOME}/tools
export PATH=${PATH}:${ANDROID_HOME}/platform-tools

Lalu, jalankan Android SDK Manager:

android

Dalam Android SDK Manager, pilih dua paket berikut:

  • Android SDK Build-tools versi 23.0.1
  • Android 6.0 (API 23) SDK Platform (Rev 3).

Silakan lihat gambar untuk lebih jelasnya.

SDK Android Platform Manager

Android SDK Manager, showing what to install to run React Native

Setelah ini, pasang React Native:

sudo npm install -g react-native

Ambil kopi atau sapa sanak saudara dari pada bengong lama menunggu proses pemasangan React Native.

Buat AVD Dulu

Buat terlebih dahulu sebuah emulasi mesin Android:

android avd
AVD Manager

AVD Manager, click Create to create new emulated Android device.

Pilih tombol Create.

Saya mengubah beberapa parameter berikut:

  • AVD Name: ReactNativeOS [Saya memang kurang kreatif :P]
  • Device: Nexus 5 [Terserah, sih]
  • Target: Android 5.1.1 – API Level 22
  • CPU/ABI: Intel Atom (x86_64)
  • Skin: Skin with dynamic hardware control
  • Front Camera, Back Camera: Emulated
  • SD Card: 200 MB
  • Emulation Options: Use Host GPU
Create Android Emulator

Create new Android Emulator based on Nexus 5 and API Level 21

Sisanya saya biarkan pilihan baku. Setelah itu, klik OK.

Jalankan Android yang baru dibuatkan:

emulator -avd ReactNativeOS &

Cara Pakai

Jalankan terlebih dahulu emulator AVD

Untuk membuat proyek baru:

react-native init UnivIndonesia && cd UnivIndonesia

Setelah pemasangan berhasil, masuk ke direktori dan jalankan peladen NodeJS:

npm start

Setelah itu, buka terminal baru lagi dan masuk ke direktori tersebut. Kalau mau di terminal yang sama, tambahkan tanda ampersand (“&”) setelah “start” agar Nodejs dijalankan di latar belakang.

Untuk melihat aplikasi Android yang sudah dibuat, jalankan:

react-native run-android

Selamat mencoba. Sebenarnya, React Native bisa dijalankan di iOS, tapi saya tak mampu membeli SDK Apple. 😛

Membuat Sertifikat Let’s Encrypt Menggunakan certbot Di Debian Wheezy
By The people from the Tango! project, derived RRZEicons (The Tango! Desktop Project) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons, color modified by JP

Membuat Sertifikat Let’s Encrypt Menggunakan certbot Di Debian Wheezy

Maaf, ya, saya suka khilaf lupa menulis tulisan lanjutan. Ha… ha… ha….

Berikut ini adalah cara memasang sertifikat SSL yang ditandatangani oleh Let’s Encrypt dengan menggunakan certbot pada Debian Wheezy. Silakan lihat cara pasang di Wheezy untuk keterangan lebih lanjut.

Aktifkan Repo Debian Wheezy Backports

Anda bisa langsung mengaktifkan repo Debian Wheezy Backports:

echo "deb http://kambing.ui.ac.id/debian-backports/ jessie-backports main" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/debian-backports.list
sudo apt update

Atau nanti tunggu ditanyakan pada saat menjalankan certbot.

Pasang certbot

Unduh dengan pengunduh favorit Anda.

sudo wget https://dl.eff.org/certbot-auto -O /usr/local/bin/certbot-auto
sudo chmod +x /usr/local/bin/certbot-auto

Sebelum Memasang Let’s Encrypt

Siapa tahu Anda malas tidak punya waktu untuk membaca artikel sebelumnya, perhatikanlah:

  1. Pastikan semua domain yang didaftarkan sudah terdaftar di DNS publik.
  2. Pastikan bahwa direktori yang memuat URL untuk sertifikasi dapat diakses.

Penulisan DNS di luar cakupan tulisan ini. Berikut contoh direktori .well-known

server {
        listen   80;
        listen  [::]:80 ipv6only=on;
        server_name  example.com www.example.com;
        server_name_in_redirect on;
        port_in_redirect on;
 
        access_log  /var/log/nginx/access.log;
        error_log  /var/log/nginx/error.log;
 
        # For ACME Let's Encrypt challenge
        location /.well-known {
                alias /var/www/html/.well-known; # have this as the webroot
        }
 
        location / {
                return 301 https://$server_name$request_uri;
        }
 
}

Mari memasang certbot.

Sertifikasi

Seperti biasa:

sudo certbot-auto certonly --webroot -w /var/www/html -d example.com -d www.example.com

Seandainya tadi Anda melewati bagian pemasangan repositori Debian Backports, maka Anda akan ditanyakan:

To use the Apache Certbot plugin, augeas needs to be installed from wheezy-backports.
Would you like to enable the wheezy-backports repository [Y/n]? y

Lalu beberapa pesan pemasangan paket Python virtualenv. Kemudian, ditanyakan alamat info:

Installing Python packages...
Installation succeeded.
Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log
Enter email address (used for urgent renewal and security notices) (Enter 'c' to
cancel):admin@example.com

Lalu, ditanyakan apakah menyetujui syarat dan ketentuan yang diberikan, jawab A untuk setuju.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Please read the Terms of Service at
https://letsencrypt.org/documents/LE-SA-v1.1.1-August-1-2016.pdf. You must agree
in order to register with the ACME server at

No Title

No Description

------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (A)gree/(C)ancel: A

Setelah itu, tunggu beberapa saat.

Obtaining a new certificate
Performing the following challenges:
http-01 challenge for example.com
Using the webroot path /var/www/html for all unmatched domains.
Waiting for verification...
Cleaning up challenges
Generating key (2048 bits): /etc/letsencrypt/keys/0000_key-certbot.pem
Creating CSR: /etc/letsencrypt/csr/0000_csr-certbot.pem

IMPORTANT NOTES:
 - Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at
   /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/fullchain.pem. Your
   cert will expire on 2017-04-19. To obtain a new or tweaked version
   of this certificate in the future, simply run certbot-auto again.
   To non-interactively renew *all* of your certificates, run
   "certbot-auto renew"
 - If you lose your account credentials, you can recover through
   e-mails sent to admin@example.com.
 - Your account credentials have been saved in your Certbot
   configuration directory at /etc/letsencrypt. You should make a
   secure backup of this folder now. This configuration directory will
   also contain certificates and private keys obtained by Certbot so
   making regular backups of this folder is ideal.
 - If you like Certbot, please consider supporting our work by:

   Donating to ISRG / Let's Encrypt:   https://letsencrypt.org/donate
   Donating to EFF:                    https://eff.org/donate-le

Kalau sudah sampai sini, Anda sudah selesai mendapatkan sertifikasi dari Let’s Encrypt.

Konfigurasi NGINX

Kalau mau penjelasan, lihat artikel terdahulu.

Berikut blok SSL:

ssl  on;
 
ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/fullchain.pem;
ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/privkey.pem;
        
ssl_protocols       TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
ssl_ciphers         "EECDH+ECDSA+AESGCM EECDH+aRSA+AESGCM EECDH+ECDSA+SHA384 EECDH+ECDSA+SHA256 EECDH+aRSA+SHA384 EECDH+aRSA+SHA256 EECDH+aRSA+RC4 EECDH EDH+aRSA RC4 !aNULL !eNULL !LOW !3DES !MD5 !EXP !PSK !SRP !DSS";
ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
ssl_session_cache   shared:SSL:20m;
ssl_session_timeout 60m;
 
ssl_dhparam /etc/nginx/ssl/dhparam.pem;
 
ssl_stapling on;
ssl_stapling_verify on;
ssl_trusted_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/chain.pem;
resolver 8.8.8.8;
 
add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=31536000" always;

Nah, untuk Debian Wheezy, ada tambahan yang harus dilakukan.

Penambahan Penjadwalan CRON

Pada paket Debian Jessie, jadwal CRON untuk certbot sudah dipasang pada /etc/cron.d/certbot. Mari tambahkan secara manual untuk Debian Wheezy.

Pertama-tama, coba jalankan apakah sukses.

sudo certbot-auto renew --dry-run

Kalau sudah berhasil, maka pasang pada CRON.

sudo crontab -e

Masukkan entri:

0 */12 * * * /usr/local/bin/certbot-auto renew --quiet --no-self-upgrade

Let’s Encrypt memandatkan untuk pengecekan sehari dua kali.

Terakhir

Selesai.

 

Bacaan Lebih Lanjut

Membuat Sertifikat Let’s Encrypt Menggunakan certbot Di Debian Jessie
By The people from the Tango! project, derived RRZEicons (The Tango! Desktop Project) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons, color modified by JP

Membuat Sertifikat Let’s Encrypt Menggunakan certbot Di Debian Jessie

Untuk mendukung web yang aman dan dalam rangka HTTP/2 yang sudah menggunakan SSL sebagai dasar koneksi, diperlukan sertifikat digital yang ditandatangani oleh pihak yang terpercaya. Situs yang memiliki sertifikat digital yang ditandatangani sendiri bahkan sudah ditandai oleh beberapa peramban sebagai situs tak aman. Tak ayal lagi, diperlukan tanda tangan digital yang terpercaya.

Kali ini kita menggunakan sebuah sertifikat gratis yang bernama Let’s Encrypt. Penyedia sertifikat ini (CA) didukung oleh EFF (Electronic Frontier Foundation), sebuah organisasi nirlaba yang bergerak dalam aktivitas digital. Bahkan, organisasi nirlaba ini menyediakan perkakas untuk sertifikasi tanda tangan digital, certbot.

Mungkin Anda bertanya, bagaimana dengan Sivion? Sivion adalah salah satu usaha dari Indonesia untuk itu. CA (penyedia sertifikat) dari Indonesia ini saat ini menyediakan tanda tangan gratis bagi kita. Namun, sayangnya mereka belum menyediakan perkakas sertifikasi seperti Let’s Encrypt.

Artikel kali ini membahas bagaimana memasang sertifikat Let’s Encrypt dengan certbot. Artikel ditulis untuk Debian Jessie.

Aktifkan Repo Debian Jessie Backports

Tambahkan ke daftar repo dan perbaharui daftar paket.

echo "deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian jessie-backports main" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/debian-backports.list
sudo apt update

Saya tidak arahkan ke Kambing karena saya sedang malas membetulkan Kambing. Mungkin nanti setelah betul, saya arahkan ke Kambing. ;-P

Pasang certbot

Perkakas certbot ada di repo Jessie Backports.

sudo apt-get install certbot -t jessie-backports

Sebelum Memasang Let’s Encrypt

Ada dua hal yang menjadi kewajiban kita:

  1. Pastikan semua domain yang didaftarkan sudah terdaftar di DNS publik.
  2. Pastikan bahwa direktori yang memuat URL untuk sertifikasi dapat diakses.

Untuk pembuatan entri DNS di luar cakupan tulisan ini.

Halaman HTTP (tanpa SSL) untuk lokasi .well-known/ (http://example.com/.well-known/) harus dapat diakses. Bila Anda seperti saya yang mematikan non-SSL, harus ditambahkan dahulu pengecualian tersebut di peladen. Omong-omong saya menggunakan peladen NGINX. Contoh pengecualian:

server {
        listen   80;
        listen  [::]:80 ipv6only=on;
        server_name  example.com www.example.com;
        server_name_in_redirect on;
        port_in_redirect on;

        access_log  /var/log/nginx/access.log;
        error_log  /var/log/nginx/error.log;

        # For ACME Let's Encrypt challenge
        location /.well-known {
                alias /var/www/html/.well-known; # have this as the webroot
        }

        location / {
                return 301 https://$server_name$request_uri;
        }

}

Berikutnya, pasang.

Sertifikasi

Jalankan sertifikasi

sudo certbot certonly --webroot -w /var/www/html -d example.com -d www.example.com

Ikuti prosesnya, biasanya pertama-tama ditanyakan alamat surel yang bisa dihubungi bila ada apa-apa.

Enter our email address

Enter our email address

Setelah itu, biasanya ditanyakan kesediaan mengikuti syarat dan ketentuan yang ditetapkan oleh Let’s Encrypt. Pencet tombol [ENTER] saja.

Saya lupa menyuplikkan saat sudah berhasil. Ya, coba saja cek direktori /etc/letsencrypt/live yang seharusnya berisi satu direktori bernama domain pertama yang kita daftarkan.

Konfigurasi NGINX

Sebelum saya kasih konfigurasi penuh, saya coba berikan potongan.

SSL Baku

Untuk konfigurasi SSL baku gunakan sertifikat-sertifikat ini:

ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/fullchain.pem;
ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/privkey.pem;

OCSP Stapling

Untuk memanfaatkan OCSP Stapling gunakan sertifikat ini:

ssl_trusted_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/chain.pem;

Contoh Penuh

Ini contoh penuh blok SSL saya.

ssl  on;

ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/fullchain.pem;
ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/privkey.pem;
        
ssl_protocols       TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
ssl_ciphers         "EECDH+ECDSA+AESGCM EECDH+aRSA+AESGCM EECDH+ECDSA+SHA384 EECDH+ECDSA+SHA256 EECDH+aRSA+SHA384 EECDH+aRSA+SHA256 EECDH+aRSA+RC4 EECDH EDH+aRSA RC4 !aNULL !eNULL !LOW !3DES !MD5 !EXP !PSK !SRP !DSS";
ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
ssl_session_cache   shared:SSL:20m;
ssl_session_timeout 60m;

ssl_dhparam /etc/nginx/ssl/dhparam.pem;

ssl_stapling on;
ssl_stapling_verify on;
ssl_trusted_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/chain.pem;
resolver 8.8.8.8;

add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=31536000" always;

Terakhir

Untungnya menggunakan paket Debian Jessie adalah pembaharuan SSL berlangsung otomatis. Setelah ini saya akan buat tulisan untuk Debian Wheezy. Sayangnya, pemasangan Debian Wheezy lebih rumit dari Debian Jessie.

Selamat mencoba dan tinggalkan komentar bila ingin bertanya.

Bacaan Lebih Lanjut