Halal Literacy: A Concept Exploration and Measurement Validation part 2 (Appendix)

Written by imams on May 23 2012

Author Details:

  • Imam Salehudin
  • Department of Management, Faculty of Economics University of Indonesia
  • imams@ui.ac.id, cc: gsimam@gmail.com

Original File

Abstract:

Muslim consumers have strict commandments which guides their consumption behavior. However, Muslim individuals may have different compliance regarding the commandments. This difference in compliance may be explained by difference in halal literacy. Halal literacy is the ability to differentiate permissible (halal) and forbidden (haram) goods and services which came from better understanding of Islamic laws (shariah). Thus, the purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of Halal Literacy as well as to develop and validate an instrument to measure Halal Literacy for Muslim consumers.

Halal literacy was measured using two methods. One method using six items of five point Likert self evaluation scale and the other using fifteen true-false test questions with an option to choose doesn’t know. Proportion of correct and incorrect was used as weights in scoring to represent the difficulty of items. Scoring results were then analyzed with Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) usingWeighted Least Squaremethod to test construct validity. Scores were then used to classify cases into high, moderate and low Literacy groups. Self evaluation halal literacy and switching Intentions are compared between groups using ANOVA to determine concurrent validity.

Only ten out of fifteen items are considered valid using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. ANOVA showed that grouping of high, moderate and low literacy score can distinguish differences in perceived halal literacy and switching intentions between the groups. Post hoc tests and descriptive statistics revealed interesting non linear relationship between the halal literacy scores; self evaluated halal literacy and intentions to switch from products without halal labels.

Keywords: Halal Literacy; Halal Labels; Muslim Consumer; Measurement and Validation; Product Switching Intention

 

Appendix 1:  Summary of Items and Validation Result

A. ACTUAL HALAL LITERACY

Code

Items

Key

Validity

Which of the following can be considered halal…?
HL01 Beef slaughtered by ahlul kitab (Christian and Jews)

Daging sapi yang di sembelih oleh ahlul kitab

V

Valid

HL02 Medicine with ingredients containing pig fat

Obat yang salah satu bahan bakunya menggunakan lemak babi

X

Not Valid

HL03 Cakes using rum as an ingredient

Kue yang salah satu bahan bakunya adalah rum

X

Valid

HL04 Flesh of fish fed partly by feces

Daging ikan yang sehari-harinya diberi makan dengan kotoran

X

Not Valid

HL05 Flesh of animals died of old age

Daging hewan yang mati karena usia tua

X

Valid

HL06 To eat rang-rang ants

Makan semut rang-rang

X

Valid

HL07 To eat the flesh of bighal (mule)

Makan daging bighal (peranakan kuda dengan keledai)

X

Valid

HL08 Things harmful to ones health (such as cigarettes)

Semua benda yang memiliki pengaruh buruk bagi kesehatan (seperti rokok)

X

Not Valid

HL09 Meat of dhob’un or hyena

Daging dhob’un atau hyena

V

Valid

HL10 To eat shark’s fin

Makan sirip ikan hiu

V

Not Valid

HL11 To eat the flesh of a cattle slaughtered before it is one year old

Daging hewan ternak jika disembelih sebelum genap berumur satu tahun

V

Valid

HL12 To eat halal food used as offering in pagan rituals

Makanan halal yang telah dijadikan sesajen untuk upacara yang berbau syirik

X

Valid

HL13 To drink khamr, consumed as medicine

Minum khamr, jika dikonsumsi sebagai obat

X

Not Valid

HL14 Dining in a place that also serves alcoholic beverages

Makan/minum di tempat yang juga menyajikan minuman keras

X

Valid

HL15 Dining in a place that also serves haram foods, such as pork

Makan/minum di tempat yang juga menyajikan masakan haram seperti babi

X

Valid

Note:

V: True

X: False

 

B. HALAL LITERACY SELF EVALUATION

Code

Items: State the degree of your agreement with the following statements (5 point Likert scale)

SLF

T-value

Validity

C1

I  understand Islamic laws of halal and haram for food and drinks

Saya memahami hukum halal – haram untuk makanan dan minuman dalam Islam

0.66 7.93

Valid

C2

I feel capable to differentiate which food or drinks are permissible (halal) and which are forbidden (haram)

Saya merasa sudah mampu membedakan sendiri mana makanan atau minuman yang dihalalkan atau diharamkan oleh Islam

0.78 9.93

Valid

C3

I don’t know much about whether certain foods or drinks are permissible (halal) or forbidden (haram) [REVERSE ITEM]

Saya tidak banyak tahu mengenai hukum halal – haramnya suatu makanan atau minuman

0.66 8.23

Valid

C4

I feel that I need the help of someone else more knowledgeable to differentiate which food or drinks are permissible (halal) and which are forbidden (haram) [REVERSE ITEM]

Saya merasa butuh bantuan orang lain yang lebih paham untuk mengetahui mana produk yang halal dan mana yang haram.

0.46 5.45

Valid

C5

I feel that I know enough which foods or drinks are forbidden by Islam

Saya merasa sudah cukup mengetahui makanan dan minuman yang diharamkan oleh Islam

0.69 8.43

Valid

C6

I have enough knowledge to differentiate between permissible (halal) and forbidden (haram) stuffs

Saya punya cukup ilmu untuk membedakan antara barang yang halal dengan barang yang haram

0.75 9.36

Valid

Note: Underlined items are reverse items. All reverse items have undergone reverse coding before analysis.


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